In recent years, the fusion of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and the Internet of Things (IoT) has opened up unprecedented opportunities for agricultural innovation. One groundbreaking development in this arena is the implementation of real-time geoinformation systems, which promise to revolutionize agri-environment research by enhancing data quality, scalability, and cost-efficiency.

The Rise of Spatial IoT in Agriculture

As the agricultural sector increasingly relies on AI and ML for knowledge discovery, the need for large, high-quality datasets has become paramount. Spatial IoT technologies, which involve deploying internet-connected sensors throughout agricultural environments, have emerged as a crucial tool in this data-driven landscape. These sensors collect real-time, high-resolution geospatial and temporal data, enabling researchers to monitor and analyze agricultural systems with unprecedented precision.

Challenges in IoT Implementation

Despite its potential, the implementation of IoT in agriculture presents significant challenges. Managing large fleets of devices while maintaining data quality is a complex task. Scientists often start with one-off prototypes, but scaling these to thousands of internet-connected devices requires overcoming numerous technical and logistical hurdles.

Case Studies in IoT System Development

The University of Minnesota’s Real-Time GeoInformation Systems Lab has been at the forefront of addressing these challenges. Since 2019, the lab has developed and deployed over 2,727 IoT devices across four continents. This extensive deployment has provided valuable insights into creating a generalizable, open-source spatial IoT system tailored for agricultural research. This work was summarized in a recent pre-print on (Runck et al. 2024).
One key aspect of the lab's work has been the iterative development of the IoT system, progressing through three major and fourteen minor versions. Each iteration has refined the system's capabilities, from improving sensor accuracy to enhancing data transmission reliability. The current version of the system is designed to be scalable, ensuring that it can be deployed widely while maintaining high data quality.

Practical Applications

The applications of these IoT systems are diverse and impactful. For instance, in irrigation management, real-time data on soil moisture and temperature help optimize water usage, crucial in regions facing water scarcity. Similarly, in plant winterkill research, sensors monitor microclimates to understand the conditions leading to crop damage in cold environments. These insights enable farmers to adopt preventive measures, safeguarding crop yields.
Another notable application is in meteorological observations. Deploying IoT systems for weather monitoring provides granular data that enhance the accuracy of weather forecasts, which is vital for agricultural planning and risk management. For example, in Minnesota and Malawi, extensive networks of weather stations equipped with IoT sensors collect data that support both local farmers and broader agricultural research initiatives. However, paying attention to data quality, access and interoperability matters, often coupled with fit-for-purpose analytic pipelines, is key to ensuring real-time, geo-sensed data lead to actionable, data-driven informatics products.

The Role of Open Source in Scaling IoT

Open-source technology plays a crucial role in the scalability of IoT systems. By making design files and code publicly available, researchers can build on existing work, ensuring broader adoption and continuous improvement. This collaborative approach aligns with the scientific principles of transparency and reproducibility, fostering innovation across the agricultural research community.

Moving Forward: GEMS Sensing Service

To support the ongoing development and deployment of IoT systems, the University of Minnesota has established GEMS Sensing, a service organization within its GEMS Informatics Center. This initiative aims to provide turnkey IoT solutions for researchers, ensuring that the technology is accessible and sustainable. By offering both internal and external sales models, GEMS Sensing facilitates public-private partnerships, driving further advancements in digital agriculture.


The integration of real-time geoinformation systems into agricultural research marks a significant leap towards smarter, more sustainable farming practices. By harnessing the power of spatial IoT, researchers can collect and analyze data at an unprecedented scale and resolution, paving the way for innovative solutions to some of agriculture's most pressing challenges. As these technologies continue to evolve, the future of agriculture looks increasingly data-driven and resilient, promising enhanced productivity and sustainability for the global food system.


Image: Generated with Firefly. of A modern agricultural field with IoT sensors placed at various points.